Corneal Infections A corneal ulcer is an open sore in the cornea. It is usually produced by an infection, commonly bacterial, fungal or viral. The ulcer can either be located in the centre of the cornea and greatly affect the vision or be placed in the periphery and not affect it so much. There are at least 25,000 cases of bacterial and fungal corneal ulcers each in India every year. Infections that develop in the cornea are frequently associated with trauma, contact lens overuse and dry eyes. It causes pain, redness and watering in the eye which can be quite severe. Ulcers frequently require 2-3 months of intensive treatment with eye drops and / or tablets and heal by corneal scarring. If visual loss occurs, this may require corneal grafting later in future. If medical treatment fails; intense suppuration )pus formation( often ensues, and the cornea can eventually perforate. Hence non healing ulcers may require therapeutic corneal grafting to save the eye
Corneal ulcer Fungal corneal infections frequently occur because of trauma with vegetable matter. Viral corneal infections often occur spontaneously or in immunocompromised patients. Collagen vascular disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic diseases like tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, diabetes and AIDS can also cause corneal ulcers.
corneal degenerations various degenerative conditions like band keratopathy, spheroidal degenerations, lipid keratopathy etc, can cause decrease in vision and require corneal grafting
corneal dystrophies These are hereditary disorders of cornea which cause excessive production of materials which get deposited in the cornea. If excessive, they can cause visual impairment requiring corneal grafting/ laser treatment )PTK( for vision improvement